WASHINGTON: Children who are bullied in fifth grade are more likely to become depressed and experiment with drugs and alcohol during their teen years than their peers who weren’t victimised by other kids, a US study suggests.
Researchers followed almost 4,300 students starting in fifth grade when they were around 11 years old. By tenth grade, 24 percent of the teens drank alcohol, 15 percent smoked marijuana, and 12 percent used tobacco.
More frequent episodes of physical and emotional bullying in fifth grade were associated with higher odds of depression by seventh grade, which was, in turn, linked to greater likelihood of substance use later in adolescence, the study found.
“We drew on the self-medication hypothesis when trying to understand why peer victimisation may lead to substance use over time,” said lead study author Valerie Earnshaw, a human development and family studies researcher at the University of Delaware in Newark.
“This suggests that people use substances to try to relieve painful feelings or control their emotions,” Earnshaw said by email. “So, youth who are bullied feel bad, or experience depressive symptoms, and then may use substances to try to feel better.”
For the study, researchers examined data from three surveys conducted from 2004 to 2011 among students at schools in Houston, Los Angeles and Birmingham, Alabama.
Students were asked if they had used tobacco, alcohol or marijuana in the past 30 days and how often they had been victims of bullying by their peers in the previous year. Questions on peer victimisation touched on both physical aggression like shoving and kicking as well as emotional taunts like saying nasty things about them to other kids.
At the start of the study in fifth grade, about 10 percent of participants said they had been victims of bullying. This was more common among sexual minorities, kids who had chronic illnesses, and boys.
By seventh grade, almost 2 percent of the students reported symptoms of depression. And by the end of the study in tenth grade, substance use was more common among the kids who had previously reported bullying and depression.